put the Enemy into such a Terror, that they forsook that Fort, and secretly fled away with. all their Train that very night to another strong hold not far distant from Tadeaster, called Cawood-Castle, to which, by reason of its low and boggy Scituation, and foul and narrow Lanes and passages, it was not possible for my Lord to pursue them without too great an hazard to his Army; whereas had the Lieutenant General performed his Duty, in all probability the greatest part of the principal Rebels in York-shire would that day have been taken in their own trap, and their further mischief prevented. My Lord, the next morning, instead of storming the Town (as he had intended), entred without interruption, and there stayed some few days to refresh his Army, and order that part of the Country.
In December, 1642, My Lord thought it fit to march to Pomfret, and to quarter his Army in that part of the Country which was betwixt Cawood and some Garisons of the Enemy, in the west part of York-shire, viz. Hallifax Bradford, Leeds, Wakefield, &c., where he remained some time to recruit and enlarge his Army, which was much lessened by erecting of Garisons, and to keep those parts in order and obedience to His Majesty; And after he had thus ordered his Affairs, He was enabled to give Protection to those parts of the Country that were most willing to embrace it, and quarter’d his Army for a time in such places which he had reduced. Tad caster, which stood upon a Pass, he made a Garison or rather a strong Quarter, and put
also a Garison into Pornfret Castle, not above eight Miles distant from Tadcaster, which commanded that Town, and a great part of the Country.
During the time that his Army remained at Porn/ret, My Lord setled a Garison at Newark in Nottingham-shire, standing upon the River Trent, a very considerable pass, which kept the greatest part of Nottingham shire, and part of Lincoln-shire, in obedience; and after that he returned, in the beginning of January, 1642, back to York, with an intention to supply Himself with some Ammunition, which He had ordered to be brought from Newcastle: A Convoy of Horse that were imployed to conduct it from thence, under the Command of the Lieu tenant General of the Army, the Lord Ethyn, was by the Enemy at a pass, called Yarum bridg, in York-shire, fiercely encountred; in which encounter My Lord’s Forces totally routed them, slew many, and took many Prisoners, and most of their Horse Colours, consisting of Seventeen Comets; and so march’d on to York with their Ammunition, without any other Interruption.
My Lord, after he had received this Ammunition, put his Army into a condition to march, and having intelligence that the Queen was at Sea, with intention to land in some part of the Eastriding of York-shire, he directed his March in February, 1642, into those parts, to be ready to attend Her Majesties landing, who was then daily expected from Holland. Within a short time, after it had pleased God to protect Her
Majesty both from the fury of Wind and Waves, there being for several days such a Tempest at Sea that Her Majesty, with all her Attendance, was in danger to be cast away every minute; as also from the fury of the Rebels, which had the whole Naval Power of the Kingdom then in their Hands, she arrived safely at a small Port in the East riding of York-shire called Burlington Key, where Her Majesty was no sooner landed, but the Enemy at Sea made continual shot against her Ships in the Port, which reached not onely Her Majesties landing, but even the House where she lay (though without the least hurt to any), so that she her self, and her Attendants, were forced to leave the same, and to seek Protection from a Hill near that place, under which they retired; and all that while it was observed that Her Majesty shewed as much Courage as ever any person could do; for Her undaunted and Generous spirit was like her Royal Birth, deriving it self from that unparrallell’d King, Her Father, whose Heroick Actions will be in perpetual Memory whilest the World hath a being.
My Lord finding Her Majesty in this condition, drew his Army near the place where she was, ready to attend and protect Her Majesties Person, who was pleased to take a view of the Army as it was drawn up in order; and immediately after, which was in March, 1643, took Her journey towards York, whither the whole Army conducted Her Majesty, and brought her safe into the City. About this time, Her Majesty having
some present occasion for Money, My Lord presented Her with 3000 1. Sterling, which she graciously accepted of, and having spent some time there in Consultation about the present affairs, she was pleased to send some Armes and Ammunition to tl King, who was then in Oxford; to which end, my Lord ordered a Party, consisting of 1500, well Commanded, to conduct the same, with whom the Lord Percy, who then had waited upon Her Majesty from the King, returned to Oxford; which Party His Majesty was pleased to keep with him for his own Service.
Not long after, My Lord, who always endeavoured to win any place or persons by fair means, rather then by using of force, reduced to His Majesties obedience a strong Fort and Castle upon the Sea, and a very good Haven, call’d Scarborough-Castle, perswading the Governour thereof, who heretofore had opposed his Forces at Yarum-bridg, with such rational and convincible Arguments, that he willingly rendred himself, and all the Garison, unto His Majesties Devotion; By which prudent Action My Lord highly advanced His Majesties Interest ; for by that means the Enemy was much annoyed and prejudiced at Sea, and a great part in the East-riding of York-shire kept in due obedience.
After this, My Lord having received Intelligence that the Enemies General of the Horse had designed to march with a Party from Cawood Castle, whither they were fled from Tadcaster, as before is mentioned to some Garisons which they had in the West
of York-shire ; presently order’d a party of Horse, Commanded by the General of the Horse, the Lord George Goring, to attend the Enemy in their March, who overtook them on a Moor, call’d Seacroft-Moor, and fell upon their Rear, which caused the Enemy to draw up their Forces into a Body; to whom they gave a Total rout (although their number was much greater) and took about 800 Prisoners, and 10 or 12 Colours of Horse, besides many that were slain in the charge; which Prisoners were brought to York, about 10 or 12 miles distant from that same place.
Immediately after, in pursuit of that Victory, My Lord sent a considerable Party into the West of York-shire, where they met with about 2000 of the Enemies Forces, taken out of their several Garisons in those parts, to execute some design upon a Moor called Tankerly-Moor, and there fought them, and routed them; many were slain, and some taken Prisoners.
Not long after, the Remainder of the Army that were left at York, marched to Leeds, in the West of York-shire, and from thence to Wakefield, being both the Enemies Quarters, to reduce and settle that part of the Country:
My Lord having possessed himself of the Town of Wakefield, it being large, and of great compass, and able to make a strong quarter, order’d it accordingly; and receiving Intelligence that in two Market- Towns Southwest from Wakefield, viz. Rotherham and Sheffield, the Enemy was very busie to raise Forces against his Majesty,
and had fortified them both about four miles distant from each other, hoping thereby to give protection and encouragement to all those parts of the Country which were popu— bus, rich and rebellious, he thought it necessary to use his best endeavours to blast those their wicked designs in the bud; and there upon took a resolution in April 1643, to march with part of his Army from Wake field into the mentioned parts, attended with a convenient Train of Artillery and Ammunition, leaving the greatest part of it at Wakefield with the remainder of his Army, under the Care and Conduct of his General of the Horse, and Major General of the Army, which was so considerable, both in respect of their number and provision, that they did, as they might well, conceive themselves Master of the Field in those parts, and se cure in that quarter, although in the end it proved not so, as shall hereafter be declared, which must necessarily be imputed to their invigilancy and carelessness.
My Lord first marched to Rotherham, and finding that the Enemy had placed a Garison of Soldiers in that Town, and fortified it, he drew up his Army in the morning against the Town, and summon’d it; but they refusing to yield, my Lord fell to work with his Can non and Musket, and within a short time took it by storm, and enter’d the Town that very night; some Enemies of note that were found therein, were taken Prisoners; and as for the common Soldiers, which were by the Enemy forced from their Allegiance, he shew’d such Clemency to them, that very
many willingly took up Arms for his Majesties Service, and proved very faithful and loyal Subjects, and good Soldiers.
After my Lord had stayed two or three dayes there, and order’d those parts, he march’d with his Army to Sheffield, another Market-Town of large extent, in which there was an Ancient Castle; which when the Enemies Forces that kept the Town, came to hear of, being terrified with the fame of my Lords hitherto Victorious Army, they fled away from thence into Derbyshire, and left both Town and Castle (without any blow) to my Lords Mercy; and though the people in the Town were most of them rebelliously affected, yet my Lord so prudently ordered the business, that within a short time he reduced most of them to their Allegiance by love, and the rest by fear, and recruited his Army daily; he put a Garison of Soldiers into the Castle, and fortified it in all respects, and constituted a Gentleman of Quality Governour both of the Castle, Town and Country; and finding near that place some Iron Works, he gave present order for the casting of Iron Cannon for his Garisons, and for the making of other Instruments and Engines of War.
Within a short time after, my Lord receiving Intelligence that the Enemy in the Garisons near Wakefield had united them selves, and being drawn into a body in the night time, had surprised and enter’d the Town of Wakefield, and taken all or most of the Officers and Soldiers, left there, Prisoners, (amongst whom was also the General of the
Hors the Lord Goring, whom my Lord afterwards redeem’d by Exchange) and possessed themselves of the whole Magazine, which was a very great loss and hinderance to my Lords designs, it being the Moity of his Army, and most of his Ammunition, he fell upon new Counsels, and resolved without any delay to march from thence back to wards York, which was in May 1643, where after he had rested some time, Her Majesty being resolved to take Her Journey towards the Southern parts of the Kingdom, where the King was, designed first to go from York to Porn fret, whither my Lord ordered the whole Marching Army to be in readiness to conduct Her Majesty, which they did, he himself attending Her Majesty in person. And after Her Majesty had rested there some small time, she being desirous to proceed in Her intended Journey, no less then a formed Army was able to secure Her Person:
Wherefore my Lord was resolved out of his fidelity and duty to supply Her with an Army of 7000 Horse and Foot, besides a convenient Train of Artillery, for Her safer Conduct; chusing rather to leave himself in a weak condition (though he was even then very near the Enemies Garisons in that part of the Country) then suffer Her Majesties Person to be exposed to danger. Which Army of 7000 men, when Her Majesty was safely arrived to the King, He was pleased to keep with him for His own Service.
After Her Majesties departure Out of York shire, my Lord was forced to recruit again his Army, and within a short time, viz, in June,
1643, took a resolution to march into the Enemies Quarters, in the Western parts ; in which march he met with a strong stone house well fortified, call’d Howley-House, wherein was a Garison of Soldiers, which my Lord summon’d; but the Governour dis obeying the summons, he batter’d it with his Cannon, and so took it by force; the Governour having quarter given him contrary to my Lord’s Orders, was brought before my Lord by a Person of Quality, for which the Officer that brought him received a check; and though he resolved then to kill him, yet my Lord would not suffer him to do it, saying, It was inhumane to kill any man in cold blood. Hereupon the Governour kiss’d the Key of the House door, and presented it to my Lord; to which my Lord return’d this answer: I need it not, said he, for I brought a Key along with me, which yet I was unwilling to use, until you forced me to it.
At this House my Lord remained five or six days, till he had refreshed his Soldiers; and then a resolution was taken to march against a Garison of the Enemies call’d Bradford, a little but a strong Town; in the way he met with a strong interruption by the Enemy drawing forth a vast number of Musquetiers, which they had very privately gotten out of Lancashire, the next adjoining County to those parts of York shire, which had so easie an access to them at Bradford, by reason the whole Country was of their Party, that my Lord could not possibly have any constant intelligence
of their designs and motions; for in their Army there were near 5000 Musquetiers, and 18 Troops of Horse, drawn up in a place full of hedges, called Atherton-moor, near to their Garison at Bradford, ready to en counter my Lord’s Forces, which then contained not above half so many Musquetiers as the Enemy had; their chiefest strength consisting in Horse, and these made useless for a long time together by the Enemies Horse possessing all the plain ground upon that Field; so that no place was left to draw up my Lords Horse, but amongst old Coal-pits: Neither could they charge the Enemy, by reason of a great ditch and high bank betwixt my Lord’s and the Enemies Troops, but by two on a breast, and that within Musquet shot; the Enemy being drawn up in hedges, and continually playing upon them, which rendred the service exceeding difficult and hazardous.
In the mean while the Foot of both sides on the right and left Wings encounter’d each other, who fought from Hedg to Hedg, and for a long time together overpower’d and got ground of my Lords Foot, almost to the invironing of his Cannon; my Lords Horse (wherein consisted his greatest strength) all this while being made, by reason of the ground, incapable of charging; at last the Pikes of my Lords Army having had no employment all the day, were drawn against the Enemies left wing, and particularly those of my Lords own Regiment, which were all stout and valiant men, who fell so furiously upon the Enemy, that they forsook their
hedges, and fell to their heels : At which very instant my Lord caused a shot or two to be made by his Cannon against the Body of the Enemies Horse, drawn up within Cannon shot, which took so good effect, that it disordered the Enemies Troops; Hereupon my Lord’s Horse got over the Hedg, not in a body (for that they could not), but dispersedly two on a breast; and as soon as some considerable number was gotten over, and drawn up, they charged the Enemy, and routed them; so that in an instant there was a strange change of Fortune, and the Field totally won by my Lord, notwithstanding he had quitted 7000 Men, to conduct Her Majesty, besides a good Train of Artillery, which in such a Con juncture would have weakned C Army. In this Victory the Enemy lost most of their Foot, about 3000 were taken Prisoners, and 700 Horse and Foot slain, and those that escaped fled into their Garison at Bradford, amongst whom was also their General of the Horse, Sir Thos. Fairfax.
After this My Lord caused his Army to be rallied, and marched in order that night be fore Bradford, with an intention to storm it the next morning; but the Enemy that were in the Town, it seems, were so discomfited, that the same night they escaped all various ways, and amongst them the said General of the Horse, whose Lady being behind a Servant on Horse-back, was taken by some of My Lord’s Soldiers, and brought to his Quarters, where she was treated and attended with all civility and respect, and
within few days sent to York in my Lords own Coach, and from thence very shortly after to Kingstone upon Hull, where she desired to be, attended by my Lords Coach and Servants.
Thus my Lord, after the Enemy was gone, entred the Town and Garison of Bradford, by which Victory the Enemy was so daunted, that they forsook the rest of their Garisons, that is to say, Hallifax, Leeds and Wakefield, and dispersed themselves severally, the chief Officers retiring to Hull, a strong Garison of the Enemy; and though my Lord, knowing they would make their escape thither, as having no other place of refuge to resort to, sent a Letter to York to the Governour of that City, to stop them in their passage; yet by neglect of the Post, it coming not timely enough to his hands, his Design was frustrated.
The whole County of York, save onely Hull, being now cleared and setled by my Lords Care and Conduct, he marched to the City of York, and having a competent number of Horse well armed and commanded, he quarter’d them in the East-riding, near Hull, there being no visible Enemy then to oppose them: In the mean while my Lord receiving News that the Enemy had made an Invasion into the next adjoining County of Lincoln, where he had some Forces, he presently dispatched his Lieutenant General of the Army away with some Horse and Dragoons, and soon after marched thither himself with the body of the Army, being earnestly desired by his Majesties
Party there. The Forces which my Lord had in the same County, commanded by the then Lieutenant General of the Horse, Mr. Charles Cavendish, second Brother to the now Earl of Devonshire, though they had timely notice, and Orders from my Lord to make their retreat to the Lieutenant- General of the Army, and not to fight the Enemy; yet the said Lieutenant-General of the Horse being transported by his Courage (he being a Person of great Valour and Conduct), and having charged the Enemy, unfortunately lost the field, and himself was slain in the Charge, his Horse lighting in a bogg: Which news being brought to my Lord when he was on his March, he made all the hast he could, and was no sooner joined with his Lieutenant General, but fell upon the Enemy, and put them to flight.
The first Garison my Lord took in Lincoln- shire was Gainsborrough, a Town standing upon the River Trent, wherein (not long before), had been a Garison of Soldiers for His Majesty, under the Command of the then Earl of Kingstone, but surprised, and the Town taken by the Enemies Forces, who having an intention to conveigh the said Earl of Kingstone from thence to Hull in a little Pinnace, met with some of my Lords Forces by the way, commanded by the Lieutenant of the Army, who being desirous to rescue the Earl of Kingstone, and making some shots with their Regiment Pieces, to stop the Pinnace, unfortunately slew him and one of his Servants.
My Lord drawing near the mentioned Town of Gainsborrough, there appear’d on the top of a Hill above the Town, some of the Enemies Horse drawn up in a body; whereupon he immediately sent a party of his Horse to view them; who no sooner came within their sight, but they retreated fairly so long as they could well endure; but the pursuit of my Lords Horse caused them presently to break their ranks, and fall to their heels, where most of them escaped, and fled to Lincoln, another of their Garisons. Hereupon my Lord summon’d the Town of Gainsborrough; but the Governour thereof refusing to yield, caused my Lord to plant his Cannon, and draw up his Army on the mention’d Hill; and having play’d some little while upon the Town, put the Enemy into such a terror, that the Governour sent out, and off er’d the surrender of the Town upon fair terms, which my Lord thought fit rather to embrace, then take it by force and though according to the Articles of Agreement made between them, both the Enemies Arms and the Keys of the Town should have been fairly delivered to my Lord; yet it being not performed as it was expected, the Arms being in a confused manner thrown down, and the Gates set wide open, the Prisoners that had been kept in the Town began first to plunder; which my Lords Forces seeing, did the same, although it was against my Lords will and orders.
After my Lord bad thus reduced the Town, and put a good Garison of Soldiers
into it, and better fortified it, he marched before Lincoln, and there he entred with his Army without great difficulty, and plac’d also a Garison in it, and raised a considerable Army, both Horse, Foot and Dragoons, for the preservation of’ that County, and put them under Commanders, and Constituted a Person of Honour Commander in Chief, with intention to march towards the South, which if it had taken effect, would doubtless have made an end of that War; but he being daily importuned by the Nobility and Gentry of York-shire, to return into that County, especially upon the perswasions of the Commander in Chief of the Forces left there, who acquainted my Lord that the Enemy grew so strong every day, being got together in Kingstone upon Hull, and annoying that Country, that his Forces were not able to bear up against them; alledging withall, that my Lord would be Suspected to betray the Trust reposed in him, if he came not to succour and assist them; he went back with his Army for the protection of that same Country; and when he arrived there, which was in August, 1643, he found the Enemy of so small consequence, that they did all file before him. About this time His Majesty was pleased to honour my Lord for His true and faithful Service, with the Title of Marquess of Newcastle.
My Lord being returned into York-shire, forced the Enemy first from a Town called Beverly, wherein they had a Garison of Soldiers; and from thence, upon the entreaty of the Nobility and Gentry of York-