The Life of the Most Illustrious Prince, William Duke of Newcastle.
The Second Book
HAVING hitherto faithfully related the life of My Noble Lord and Husband, and the chief Actions which He per formed during the time of his
being employed in His Majesties Service for the Good and Interest of his King and Country, until the time of his going out of England, I shall now give you a just account of all that passed during the time of his banishment, till the return into his native Country.
My Lord being a Wise Man, and fore seeing well what the loss of that fatal Battle upon Hessom-moor, near York, would pro duce, by which not onely those of His Majesties Party in the Northern parts of the Kingdom, but in all other parts of His Majesties Dominions both in England, Scot land, and Ireland were lost and undone, and that there was no other way, but either to quit the Kingdom, or submit to the Enemy, or die, he resolved upon the former, and pre paring for his journey, asked his Steward, How Much Money he had left? Who answer’d, That he had but 901. My Lord not being at all startled at so small a Summ, although his present design required much more, was resolved too seek his Fortune,
even with that litle; and thereupon having taken leave of His Highness Prince Rupert, and the rest that were present, went to Scarborough (as before is mentioned) where two Ships were prepared for Hamborough to set sail within 24 hours, in which he embarqued with his Company, and arrived in four days time to the said City, which was on the 8th of July, I644.
In one of these Ships was my Lord, with his two Sons, Charles Viscount Mansfield, and Lord Henry Cavendish, now Earl of Ogle; as also Sir Charles Cavendish, My Lord’s Brother; the then Lord Bishop of London-derry, Dr. Bramhall; the Lord Falconbridg, the Lord Widdringion, Sir William Carnaby, who after died at Paris, and his Brother, Mr. Francis Carnaby, who went presently in the same Ship back again for England, and soon after was slain by the Enemy, near Sherborne in York-shire, besides many of my Lord’s and their servants. In the other Ship was the Earl of Ethyne, Lieutenant General of My Lord’s Army, and the Lord Cornworth. But before My Lord landed at Hamborough, his eldest Son Charles, Lord Mansfield, fell sick of the Small-Pox, and not long after his younger Son, Henry, now Earl of Ogle, fell likewise dangerously ill of the Measels; but it pleased God that they both happily recovered.
My Lord finding his Company and Charge very great, although he sent several of his Servants back again into England, and having no means left to maintain him, was forced to seek for Credit ; where at last he
got so much as would in part relieve his necessities ; and whereas heretofore he had been contented, for want of a Coach, to make use of a Waggon, when his occasions drew him abroad, he was now able (with the credit he had got) to buy a Coach and nine Horses of an Holsatian breed; for which Horses he paid £ and was afterwards offer’d for one of them an hundred Pistols at Paris, but he refused the money, and presented seven of them to Her Majesty the Queen- Mother of England, and kept two for his own use.
After my Lord had stay’d in Hamborough from July 1644, till February I644/5, he being resolved to go into France, went by Sea from Hamborough to Amsterdam, and from thence to Rotterdam, where he sent one of his Servants with a Complement and tender of his humble Service to Her Highness, the then Princess Royal, the Queen of Bohemia, the Princess Dowager of Orange, and the Prince of Orange, which was received with much kindness and civility.
From Rotterdam he directed his Journey to Antwerp, and from thence, with one Coach, one Chariot, and two Waggons, he went to Mechlin and Brussels, where he received a Visit from the Governour, the Marquess of Castel Rodrigo, the Duke of Lorrain, and Count Piccolomini.
From thence he set forth for Valenchin and Cambray, where the Governour of the Town, used my Lord with great respect and civility, and desired him to give the word that night. Thence he went to Peroon, a
Frontier Town in France (where the Vice Governour, in absence of the Governour of that place, did likewise entertain my Lord with all respect, and desired him to give the Word that night), and so to Paris without any further stay.
My Lord being arrived at Paris, which was in April, 1645, immediately went to tender his humble duty to Her Majesty, the Queen-Mother of England, where it was my Fortune to see him the first time, I being then one of the Maids of Honour to Her Majesty; and after he had stay’d there some time, he was pleased to take some particular notice of me, and express more then an ordinary affection for me; insomuch that he resolved to chuse me for his Second Wife; for he, having but two Sons, purposed to marry me, a young Woman that might prove fruitful to him and encrease his Posterity by a Masculine Offspring. Nay, He was so desirous of Male-Issue, that I have heard him say, He cared not (so God would be pleased to give him many Sons), although they came to be persons of the meanest Fortunes; but God (it seems) had ordered it otherwise, and frustrated his Designs by making me barren, which yet did never lessen his Love and Affection for me.
After My Lord was married, having no Estate or Means left him to maintain himself and his Family, he was necessitated to seek for Credit, and live upon the Courtesie of those that were pleased to Trust him; which although they did for somewhile, and shew’d themselves very civil to My Lord, yet they
grew weary at length, insomuch that his Steward was forced one time to tell him, That he was not able to provide a Dinner for him, for his Creditors were resolved to trust him no longer. My Lord being always a great master of his Passions, was, at least shew’d himself not in any manner troubled at it, but in a pleasant humour told me, that I must of necessity pawn my Cloaths to make so much Money as would procure a Dinner. I answer’d, That my Cloaths would be but of small value, and therefore desired my Waiting-Maid to pawn some small toys, which I had formerly given her, which she- willingly did. The same day in the after noon, My Lord spake himself to his Creditors, and both by his civil Deportment, and per swasive Arguments, obtained so much that they did not onely trust him for more necessaries, but lent him Mony besides to redeem those Toys that were pawned. Hereupon I sent my Waiting-Maid into England to my Brother, the Lord Lucas, for that small Portion which was left me, and my Lord also immediately after dispatched one of his Servants, who was then Governour to his Sons, to some of his Friends, to try what means he could procure for his subsistance; but though he used all the industry and endeavour he could, yet he effected but little, by reason everybody was so affraid of the Parliament, that they durst not relieve Him, who was counted a Traitor for his Honest and Loyal service to his King and Country.
Not long after, My Lord had profers made
him of some Rich Matches in England for his two Sons, whom therefore he sent thither with one Mr. Loving, hoping by that means to provide both for them and himself; but they being arrived there, out of some reasons best known to them, declared their un willingness to Marry as yet, continuing nevertheless in England, and living as well as they could.
Some two years after my Lord’s Marriage, when he had prevailed so far with his Creditors, that they began to trust him anew, the first thing he did was, that he removed out of those Lodgings in Paris, where he had been necessitated to live hitherto, to a House which he hired for him self and his Family, and furnished it as well as his new gotten Credit would permit; .and withal, resolving for his own recreation .and divertisement in his banished condition, to exercise the Art of Mannage, which he is a great lover and Master of, bought a Barbary-horse for that purpose, which cost .him 200 Pistols, and soon after another Barbary-horse from the Lord Crofts, for which he was to pay him 100l. when he ieturned into England.
About this time, there was a Council call’d at St. Germain, in which were present, be sides My Lord, Her Majesty the now Queen Mother of England; His Highness the Prince, our now gracious King, His Cousin Prince Rupert: the Marquess of Worcester, the then Marquess, now Duke of Ormond, the Lord Jermyn now Earl of St. Albans, and several others; where after several debates
concerning the then present condition of His Majesty King Charles the First, my Lord delivered his sentiment, that he could perceive no other probability of procuring Forces for His Majesty, but an assistance of the Scots ; But Her Majesty was pleased to answer my Lord, That he was too quick.
Not long after, When my Lord had begun to settle himself in his mentioned new house, His gracious Master the Prince, having taken a resolution to go into Holland upon some designs, Her Majesty the Queen Mother desired my Lord to follow him, promising to engage for his debts which hitherto he bad contracted at Paris, and commanding
Her Controller and Treasurer to be bound for them in Her behalf; which they did, although the Creditors would not content themselves, until my Lord had joined his word to theirs; So great and generous was the bounty and favour of her Majesty to my Lord i considering she had already given him heretofore near upon 20001. Sterling, even at that time when Her Majesty stood most in need of it.
My Lord, after his Highness the Prince was gone, being ready to execute Her Majesties Commands In following Him, and preparing for his Journey, wanted the chief thing, which was Money; and having much endeavoured for it, at last had the good Fortune to obtain upon Credit three or four hundred pounds sterl. With which Sum he set out of Paris in the same Equipage he entred, viz. One Coach, which he had newly caused to be made, (wherein were the
Lord Widdrington, my Lord’s Brother Sir Charles Cavendish, Mr. Loving, my Waiting- Maid, and some others, whereof the two later were then returned out of England) one little Chariot, that would onely hold my Lord and my self; and three Waggons besides an indifferent number of Servants on Horse-back.
That day when we left Paris, the Creditors coming to take their Farewell of my Lord, expressed so great a love and kindness for him, accompanied with so many hearty Prayers and Wishes, that he could not but prosper on his Journey.
Being come into the King of Spain’s Dominions, my Lord found a very Noble Reception. At Cambray the Governour was so civil, that my Lord coming to that place somewhat late, and when it was dark, he commanded some Lights and Torches to meet my Lord, and conduct him to his
Lodgings: He off er’d my Lord the Keys of the City, and desir’d him to give the Word that night, and moreover invited him to an Entertainment, which he had made for him of purpose; but it being late, my Lord (tyred with his Journey) excused him self as civilly as he could; the Governour notwithstanding being pleased to send all manner of Provisions to my Lords Lodgings, and charging our Landlord to take no pay for any thing we had: Which extraordinary Civilities shewed that he was a Right Noble Spaniard.
The next morning early, my Lord went on his Journey, and was very civilly used in
every place of His Majesty of Spain’s Do- minions, where he arrived: At last coming to Antwerp, He took water to Rotterdam (which Town he chose for his residing place, during the time of his stay in Holland) and sent thither to a Friend of his, a Gentleman of Quality, to provide him some Lodgings; which he did, and procured them at the house of one Mrs. Beynhani, Widow to an English Merchant, who had always been very Loyal to His Majesty the King of England, and serviceable to His Majesties faithful Subjects in whatsoever lay in his Power.
My Lord being come to Rotterdani, was informed that His Highness the Prince (now our Gracious King) was gone to Sea: Where fore he resolved to follow him, and for that purpose hired a Boat, and victual’d it; but since nobody knew whither His Highness was gone, and I being unwilling that my Lord should venture upon so uncertain a Voyage, and (as the Proverb is) Seek a Needle in a Bottle of Hay, he desisted from that design: The Lord Widdringiofl nevertheless, and Sir Will. Throckmorton, being resolved to find out the Prince, but having by a storm been driven towards the Coast of Scotland, and endangered their lives, they returned without obtaining their aim.
After some little time, my Lord having notice that the Prince was arrived at the Hague, be went to wait on His Highness (which he also did afterwards at several times, so long as His Highness continued there) expecting some opportunity where
he might be able to shew his readiness to serve His King and Countrey, as certainly there was no little hopes for it ; for first, it was believed that the English fleet would come and render it self into the obedience of the Prince ; next, it was reported that the Duke of Hamilton was going out of Scot land with a great Army, into England, to the assistance of His Majesty, and that His Majesty had then some party at Colchesier; but it pleased God that none of these proved effectual. For the Fleet did not come in; the Duke of Hamilton’s Army was destroyed, and Colchester was taken by the Enemy, where my dear Brother Sir Charles Lucas, and his dear Friend Sir George Lile, were most inhumanly murther’d and shot to death, they being both Valiant and Heroick Persons, good Soldiers, and most Loyal Subjects to His Majesty; the one an excellent Commander of Horse, the other of Foot.
My Lord having now lived in Rotterdam almost six months, at a great charge, keeping an open and noble Table for all comers, and being pleased especially to entertain such as were excellent Soldiers, and noted Commanders of War, whose kindness he took as a great Obligation, still hoping that some occasion would happen to invite those worthy Persons into England to serve His Majesty; but seeing no probability of either returning into England, or doing His Majesty any service in that kind, he resolved to retire to some place where he might live privately; and having chosen the City of Antwerp for
that purpose, went to the Hague to take his leave of His Highness the Prince, our now gracious Soveraign. My Lord had then but a small stock of money left; for though the then Marquess of Hereford (after Duke of Somerset, and his Cousin-German, once re moved, the now Earl of Devonshire had lent him 20001. between them; yet all that was spent, and above 10001. more, which my Lord borrowed during the time he lived in Rotterdam, his Expence being the more, by reason (as I mentioned) he lived freely and nobly.
However my Lord, notwithstanding that little provision of Money he had, set forth from Rotterdam to Antwerp, where for some time he lay in a publick Inne, until one of his Friends that had a great love and respect for my Lord, Mr. Endymion Porter, who was
Groom of the Bed-chamber to His Majesty King Charles the First (a place not onely
honourable, but very profitable) being not willing that a Person of such Quality as my Lord, should lie in a publick House, profer’d him Lodgings at the House where he was, and would not let my Lord be at quiet, until he had accepted of them.
My Lord after he had stay’d some while there, endeavouring to find out a House for himself which might fit him and his small Family, (for at that time he had put off most of his Train) and also be for his own content, lighted on one that belonged to the Widow of a famous Picture-drawer, Van Ruben, which he took.
About this time my Lord was much neces
sitated for Money, which forced him to try several ways for to obtain so much as would relieve his present wants. At last Mr. Alesbury, the onely Son to Sir Th. Alesbury, Knight and Baronet, and Brother to the now Countess of Clarendon, a very worthy Gentleman, and great Friend to my Lord, having some Moneys that belonged to the now Duke of Buckingham, and seeing my Lord in so great distress, did him the favour to lend him 2001. (which money my Lord since his return hath honestly and justly repai’d). This relief came so seasonably, that it got my Lord Credit in the City of An whereas otherwise he would have lost himself to his great disadvantage; for my Lord having hired the house afore mentioned, and wanting Furniture for it, was credited by the Citizens for as many Goods as he was pleased to have, as also for Meat and Drink, and all kind of necessaries and provisions, which certainly was a special Blessing of God, he being not onely a stranger in that Nation, but to all appearance, a Ruined man.
After my Lord had been in Antwerp some time, where he lived as retiredly as it was possible for him to do, he gained much love and respect of all that knew or had any business with him: At the beginning of our coming thither, we found but few English (except those that were Merchants) but afterwards their number increased much, especially of Persons of Quality; and whereas at first there were no more but four Coaches that went the Tour, viz, the
Governors of the Castle, my Lords, and two more, they amounted to the number of above a hundred, before we went from thence; for all those that had sufficient means, and could go to the price, kept Coaches, and went the Tour for their own pleasure. And certainly I cannot in duty and conscience but give this Publick Testimony to that place. That whereas I have observ’d, that most commonly such Towns or Cities where the Prince of that Country doth not reside himself, or where there is no great resort of the chief Nobility and Gentry, are but little civilised; Certainly, the Inhabitants of the said City of Antwerp are the civilest, and best behaved People that ever I saw; so that my Lord lived there with as much content as a man of his condition could do, and his chief pastime and divertisement consisted in the Mannage of. the two afore mentioned Horses; which he had not en joyed long, but the Barbary-horse, for which he paid 200 Pistols in Paris, died, and soon after the Horse which he had from the Lord Crofts ,‘ and though he wanted present means to repair these his losses, yet he endeavoured and obtained so much Credit at last that he was able to buy two others, and by degrees so many as amounted in all to the number of 8. In which he took so much delight and pleasure, that though he was then in distress for Money, yet he would sooner have tried all other ways, then parted with any of them; for I have hear’d him say, that good Horses are so rare, as not to be valued for Money, and that He who would buy him out of his
Pleasure (meaning his Horses), must pay dear for it. For instance I shall mention some passages which happen’d when My Lord was in Antwerp.
First; A stranger coming thither, and seeing My Lords Horses, had a great mind to buy one of them, which my Lord loved above the rest, and called him his Favourite, a fine Spanish Horse; intreating my Lords Escuyer to acquaint him with his desire, and ask the price of the said Horse : My Lord, when he heard of it, commanded his Servant, that if the Chapman returned, he should be brought before him; which being done accordingly, my Lord asked him, whether he was resolved to buy his Spanish Horse? Yes, answered he, my Lord, and I’le give your Lordship a good price for him. I make no doubt of it, replied My Lord, or else you shall not have him: But you must know, said he, that the price of that Horse is 1000l. to day, to morrow it will be 20001. next day 30001. and so forth. By which the Chapman perceiving that my Lord was unwilling to part with the said Horse for any Money, took his leave, and so went his ways.
The next was, That the Duke de Guise, who was also a great lover of good Horses, hearing much Commendation of a gray leaping Horse, which my Lord then had, told the Gentleman that praised and commended him, That if my Lord was willing to sell the said Horse, he would give 6oo Pistols for him. The Gentleman knowing my Lords humour, answered again, That he was confident, my
Lord would never part with him for any mony, and to that purpose sent a Letter to my Lord from Paris; but my Lord was so far from selling that Horse, that he was displeased to hear that any Price should be offer’d for him: So great a Love hath r Lord for good Horses! And certainly I have observed, and do verily believe, that some of them had also a particular Love to my Lord; for they seemed to rejoice whensoever he came into the Stables, by their trampling action, and the noise they made; nay, they would go much better in the Mannage, when my Lord was by, then when he was absent; and when he rid them him self, they seemed to take much pleasure and pride in it. But of all sorts of Horses, my Lord loved Spanish Horses and Barbes best; saying, That Spanish Horses were like Princes, and Barbes like Gentlemen, in their kind. And this was the chief Recreation and Pastime my Lord had in Antwerp.
I will now return to my former Discourse, and the Relation of some Important Affairs and Actions which happen’d about this time: His Majesty (our now Gracious King, Charles the Second) some time after he was gone out of Holland, and returned into France, took his Journey from thence to Breda (if I remember well) to treat there with his Subjects of Scotland, who had then made some offers of Agreement : My Lord, according to his duty, went thither to wait on His Majesty, and was there in Council with His Majesty, His Highness the then Prince of Orange, His Majesties Brother-in
law, and some other Privy-Counsellors; in which, after several Debates concerning that Important Affair, His Highness the Prince of Orange, and my Lord, agreed in one Opinion, viz. That they could perceive no other and better way at that present for His Majesty, but to make an Agreement with His Subjects of Scotland, upon any Condition, and to go into Scotland in Person Himself, that he might but be sure of an Army, there being no probability or appearance then of getting an Army any where else. Which Counsel, either out of the then alledged Reasons, or some others best known to His Majesty, was embraced; His Majesty agreeing with the Scots so far, (notwithstanding they were so unreasonable in their Treaty, that His Majesty had hardly Patience to hear them) that he resolved to go into Scot land in Person; and though my Lord had an earnest desire to wait on His Majesty thither, yet the Scots would not suffer him to come, or be in any part of that Kingdom:
Wherefore out of his Loyalty and Duty, he gave His Majesty the best advice he could, viz, that he conceived it most safe for His Majesty to adhere to the Earl of Argyle’s Party, which he supposed to be the strongest; but especially, to reconcile Hamilton’s and Argyle’s Party, and compose the differences between them; for then His Majesty would be sure of Two Parties, whereas otherwise He would leave an Enemy behind Him, which might cause His overthrow, and endanger His Majesties Person; and if His Majesty could but get the Power into his