advance their Enemies, and endeavour to make them friends by bribing them with Honours and Offices, saying, They are shrewd men, and may do the State much hurt : And on the other side, to neglect their Friends, and those that have done them great service, saying, they are Honest men, and mean the State no harm: For this kind of Policy comes from the Heathen, who pray’d to the Devil, and not to God, by reason they supposed God was Good, and would hurt no Creature; but the Devil they fiatter’d and worshipp’.d out of fear, lest he should hurt them: But by this foolish Policy, said he, they most commonly encrease their Enemies, and lose their Friends; for first, it teaches men to observe, that the onely way to Preferment, is to be against the State or Government Next, Since all that are Factious, cannot be rewarded or preferr’d, by reason a State hath more Subjects, then Rewards or Preferments, there must of necessity be numerous Enemies; for when their hopes of Reward fail them, they grow more Factious and Inveterate then ever they were at first Wherefore the best Policy in a State or Government, said my Lord, is to reward Friends, and punish Enemies, and prefer the Honest before the Factious ; and then all will be real Friends, and prefer theft honest service, either out of pure Love and Loyalty, or in hopes of Advancement, seeing there is none but by serving the State.
I have heard him say several times, That
his love to his gracious Master King Charles the Second, was above the love he bore to his Wife, Children, and all his Posterity, nay to his own life: And when, since His Return into England, I answer’d him, That Job served His Gracious Master did not love him so well as he lov’d Him; he replied, That he cared not whether His Majesty lov’d him again or not; for he was resolved to love him.
I asking my Lord one time, What kind of Fate it was, that restored our Gracious King, Charles the Second, to His Throne? He answer’d, It was a blessed kind of Fate. I replied, That I had observed a perfect contrariety between the Fortunes of His Royal Father, of blessed memory, and Him; for as there was a division amongst the generality of the people, in the Reign of King Charles the First, tending to His Destruction; so there was a general Combination and Agreement between them in King Charles the Second His Restauration; and as there was a general malice amongst the people against the Father to Depose Him; so there was a general Love for the Son to Enthrone Him. My Lord answer’d, I had observed some thing, but not all; for, said he, there was a Necessity for the people to desire and Restore King Charles the Second; but there was no Necessity to Murder King Charles the First. For the Kingdom being through so many Alterations and Changes of Government, divided into several Factions and Parties,
was at last hurried into such a Confusion, that it was impossible in that manner to subsist, or hold out any longer; Which Confusion having opened the Peoples Eyes, the generality being tyred with the evil effects and consequences of their unsetled Governments under unjust usurpers, and frightned with the apprehension of future dangers, began to call to mind the happy Times, when in an uninterrupted Peace they enjoyed their own, under the happy Reign of their Lawful Soveraigns; and hereupon with an unanimous consent Recall’d and Restor’d our now gracious King; which, although it was Opposed by some Factious Parties, yet the generality of the people outweigh’d the rest; neither was the Royal Party wanting in their endeavours.
Asking my Lord one time, Whether it was easie or difficult to govern a State or Kingdom? He answer’d me, That most States were govern’d by secret Policy, and so with difficulty; for those that govern, are (at least, should be) wiser then the State or Commonwealth they govern. I replied, That in my opinion, a State was easily govern’d, if their Government was like unto God’s; that is to say, If Governours did Reward and Punish according to the desert. My Lord answer’d, I said well; but he added, the Follies of the People are many times too hard for the Prudence of the Governour; like as the sins of men work more evil effects in them, then the Grace of
God works good; for if this were not, there would be more good then bad, which, alas, Experience proves otherwise.
Some Gentlemen making a complaint to my Lord, That some he employed in His Majesty’s Affairs, were too hasty and over busie. My Lord told them, That he would rather chuse such persons for His Majesties service as were over-active, then such that would be fuller of Questions then Actions. The same he would do for his own particular affairs.
Some condemning My Lord for having Roman-Catholicks and Scots in His Army; He answer’d them, that he did not examine their Opinions in Religion, but look’d more-upon their Honesty and Duty; for certainly there were Honest men and loyal Subjects amongst Roman Catholicks, as well as Protestants; and amongst Scots as well as English. Nevertheless, my Lord, as he was for the King, so he was also for the Orthodox Church of England, as sufficiently appears by the care he took in ordering the Church- Government, mentioned in the History. To which purpose, when my Lord was walking one time with some of His Officers in the Church at Durham, and wonder’d at the greatness and strength of the Pillars that supported that structure; My Brother, Sir Charles Lucas, who was then with him, told my Lord, that he must confess, those Pillars
were very great, and of a vast strength; But said he, Your Lordship is a far greater Pillar of the Church then all these: Which certainly was also a real truth, and would have more evidently appear’d, had Fortune favour’d my Lord more then she did.
My Lord being in Banishment, I told him, that he was happy in his misfortunes, for he was not subject to any State or Prince. To which he jestingly answer’d, That as he was subject to no Prince, so he was a Prince of no Subjects
In some Discourse which I had with my Lord concerning Princes and their Subjects I declared that I had observed Great Princes were not like the Sun, which sends forth out of it self Rays of Light, and Beams of Heat; effects that did both glorifie the Sun, and nourish and comfort sublunary Creatures; but their glory and splendor proceeded rather from the Ceremony which they received from their subjects. To which my Lord answer’d, That Subjects were so far from giving splendor to their Princes, that all the Honours and Titles, in which consists the chief splendor of a subject, were principally derived from them; for, said he, were there no Princes, there would be none to confer Honours and Titles upon them.
My Lord entertaining one time some Gentlemen with a merry Discourse, told
them, that he would not keep them Company except they had done and sufferd as much for their King and Country as he had. They answer’d, That they had not a power answer able to my Lords. My Lord replied, They should do their endeavour according to their
Abilities: No, said they, if we did, we should be like your Self, lose all, and get but little for our pains.
I being much grieved that my Lord for his loyalty and honest Service, had so many Enemies, used sometimes to speak somewhat sharply of them; but he gently reproving me, said, I should do like experienced Sea-men, and as they either turn their Sails with the wind, or take them down; so should I either comply with Time, or abate my Passion.
A Soldiers Wife, whose Husband had been slain in my Lord’s Army, came one time to beg some relief of my Lord; who told her, That he was not able to relieve all that had been loyal to His Majesty; for said he, My losses are so many, that if I should give away the remainder of my Estate, my Wife and Children would have nothing to live on: She answer’d, That His Majesty’s Enemies were preferr’d to great Honours, and had much Wealth: Then it is a sign (replied my Lord) that your Husband and I were Honest Men.
A Friend of my Lord’s, complaining that
he had done the State much Service, but received little Reward for it; my Lord answer’d him, That States did not usually reward past Services; but if he could do some present Service, he might perhaps get something; but (said he) those men are wisest that will be paid before-hand.
I observing that in the late Civil Warrs, many were desirous to be employed in States Affairs, and at the noise of Warr, endeavoured to be Commanders, though but of small Parties, asked my Lord the reason thereof, and what advantage they could make by their Employments? My Lord smilingly answer’d, That for the generality, he knew not what they could get, but danger, loss and labour for their pains. Then I ask’d him, Whether Generals of Great Armies were ever enriched by their Heroick Exploits, and great Victories ? My Lord answer’d, That ordinary Commanders gained more, and were better rewarded then great Generals. To which I added, That I had observ’d the same in Histories, namely, That Men of great Merit and Power, had not onely no Rewards, but were either found fault withall, or laid aside when they had no more business or employment for them; and that I could not conceive any reason for it, but that States were afraid of their Power: My Lord answer’d, The reason was, That it was far more easie to reward Under-Officers, then Great Commanders.
My Lord having since the Return from his Banishment, set up a Race of Horses, instead of those he lost by the Warrs, uses often to ride through his Park to see his Breed. One time it chanced when he went thorough it, that he espied some labouring-men sawing of Woods that were blown down by the Wind, for some particular uses ; at which my Lord turning to his Attendants, said, That he had been at that Work a great part of his life. They not knowing what my Lord meant, but thinking he jested; I speak very seriously, (added he) and not in jest; for you see that this Tree which is blown down by the Wind, although it was sound and strong, yet it could not withstand its force and now it is down, it must be cut in pieces, and made serviceable for several uses whereof some will serve for Building, some for Paling, some for Firing, &c. In the like manner, said he, have I been cut down by the Lady Fortune; and being not able to resist so Powerful a Princess, I have been forced to make the best use of my Misfortunes, as the Chips of my Estate.
My Lord discoursing one time with some of his Friends, of judging of other mens Natures, Dispositions and Actions; and some observing that men could not possibly know or judg of them, the events of mens actions falling out oftentimes contrary to their intentions; so that where they hit once, they faild twenty times in their Judgments. My Lord answer’d, That his Judgment in that point seldom did miss, although he thought it weaker then theirs The reason is, said he, Because I judg most men to be like my self; that is to say, Fools; when as you do judg them all according to your self, that is, Wise men ; and since there are more Fools in the World then Wise men, I may sooner guess right then you: for though my judgment roves at random, yet it can never miss of Errors; which yours will never do, except you can dive into other mens Follies by the length of your own line, and found their bottom by the weight of your own Plummet, for the depth of Follyis beyond the line of Wisdom.
Besides, said he, You believe that other men would do as you would have them, or as you would do to them; wherein you are mistaken, for most men do the contrary. In short, Folly is bottomless, and hath no end; but Wisdom hath bounds to all her designs, otherwise she would never compass them.
My Lord discoursing some time with a Leamed Doctor of Divinity concerning Faith, said, That in his opinion, the wisest way for a man, was to have as little Faith as he could for this World, and as much as he could for the next World.
In some Discourse with my Lord, I told him that I did speak sharpest to those I loved best. To which he jestingly answered, That
if so, then he would not have me love him best.
After my Lords return from a long Banishment, when he had been in the Countrey some time, and endeavoured to pick up some Gleanings of his ruined Estate; it chanced that the Widow of Charles Lord Mansfield, My Lords Eldest Son, afterwards Duchess of Richmond, to whom the said Lord of Mansfield had made a joynture of 2000 l. a Year, died not long after her second marriage; for whose death, though My Lord was heartily sorry, and would willingly have lost the said Money, had it been able to save her life; Yet discoursing one time merrily with his Friends, was pleased to say, That though his Earthly King and Master seem’d to have forgot him, yet the King of Heaven had remembred him, for he had given him 2000 l a Year.