Many people ask me where I get my information
from. Well I own a lot of books but the library has many more. Here is a good
letters exist in many places, the various publications that include them often
duplicating each other. Not all the letters have been printed and there is no
collected edition of those that have. The original letters are in various
manuscript collections including the Clarendon MSS in the Bodleian Library, the
Strafford MSS in the Central Library, Sheffield, the MSS of the Duke of Beaufort, the Domestic State
Papers in the Public Record Office, and the MSS of the House of Lords. Among
important printed sources are:
Cabala sive scrinia sacra , 1654 and later 1787.
Bromley, G., Collection of Original Royal Letters .
Letters to King James the Sixth from the Queen, Prince Henry, Prince
Charles (these are fascimiles), Maitland Club, No. 35, 1835.
Halliwell, J. O., Letters of the Kings of England , 1846.
Ellis, H., Original Letters Illustrative of English History
: 1st Series, vol. 3; 2nd Series, vol. 3; 3rd Series, vol. 4., 1824-6.
C., The Letters, Speeches and Proclamations of King Charles I . This is a small selection, as is a later edition,
Letters concerning the Spanish Match are in the Hardwicke Papers , vol. I
printed from the Harleian MSS; so are letters and documents concerning the Earl
of Bristol printed from the State Papers.
Letters, etc. concerning the Isle of Rhé are in the Hardwicke
papers , vol. II, printed from the State Papers.
Kensington's (Holland's) proxy courtship letters of Henrietta-Maria are in Cabala .
Charles's own courtship letters to Henrietta-Maria are in the Clarendon MSS and calendared in the
Clarendon State Papers .
Letters from Charles to Strafford are in W. Knowler, The Earl of Strafford's Letters and Despatches ,
The correspondence of Charles and Secretary
Nicholas in 1641 is in an Appendix to most editions of Evelyn's
Diary and Letters .
Charles's letters to James,
Duke of Hamilton, are in G. Burnet, Memoirs of the Lives and Actions of James and William,
Dukes of Hamilton , 1677.
The correspondence captured by Parliament after Naseby
was published in many forms, generally called The King's Cabinet Opened , from
1645 onwards. The original letters are among H/Lords MSS, 6, I.
Charles's letters to Henrietta-Maria from Newcastle in 1646 were published by J. Bruce as Charles I in 1646 , Camden Society, 1856.
Charles's letters to Glamorgan (Worcester)
are in MSS Duke of Beaufort, calendered in H.M. Comm. Duke of Beaufort , 12, IX.
Charles's letters to Ormonde are in the Carte Papers .
'Escape' letters of Charles to Firebrace while at Carisbrooke are in an Appendix
to P. Barwick, Life of John Barwick , 1724.
b) Charles's Speeches
Some will be found in Petrie (above), in the Proceedings of
Parliament (below), in Rushworth (below) as well as in separate publications.
Important are the
Reliquiae Sacrae Carolinae , 1649.
Bibliotheca Regia 'such of the papers . . . as have escaped the wrack and ruine
of these times', 1659.
Charles's disputations with Henderson
at Newcastle in 1646 are in the
Reliquiae (above) as well as being published separately.
Unlike his father, Charles wrote very little apart from a few odd verses, a
paraphrase or two, a few lists and many annotations. His chief period of
composition was in captivity and resulted in the Eikon
Basilike , published immediately after his
execution. The generally accepted view now is that the Eikon was written
jointly by Charles and John
Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, see
Madan, F. F.,
A New Bibliography of the Eikon Basilike
Roper, H. R.
Trevor, History Today , 1951.
Herbert, however, thought that some of the
sheets that Charles was handling were not in his
own handwriting. It cannot be certain how far Herbert
was reliable. But the sentiments of the Eikon so strongly accord with Charles's
own, and the style so strongly resembles his, that there can be little doubt
that Charles was closely involved. Perhaps his
drafts were prepared for the printer by Gauden and the sheets Herbert
saw Charles handling were in the nature of
'proofs'. Someone was certainly operating on the practical side to have the
machinery of printing and distribution ready to operate immediately after the
King's death. See also
The Last Counsel of a Martyred King , 1660.
Heylin, P., The Works of King Charles
I . . . with the Life and Reign , 1735.
Chalmers, G., The Poetic Remains of some of the Scottish Kings , 1824 (includes
'Majesty in Misery' said to have been written at Carisbrooke by Charles in 1648
and 'Lines on a Quiet Conscience' from Woty's Poetical Calendar , vol. VIII,
also attributed to Charles, though without date).
C—State Papers, Etc.
The official State Papers Domestic cover a vast variety of state and
inter-departmental correspondence and instruction, memoranda, reports; they
include reports of foreign missions, letters to and from Ambassadors, they record official payments, they include letters and
instructions from the King and petitions from ordinary people. They are
calendared as Calendar of State Papers Domestic .
The Reports from the Venetian Ambassadors in London
to the Doge and Senate at Venice
cover the period. A tradition of keen observation, generally accurate, makes
them enjoyable and useful reading. They are translated and calendared as
Calendar of State Papers Venetian .
Other collections of State Papers include
Rushworth, J., Historical Collections of Private Passages of State etc.,
7 vols, 1659 ff.; later eds. 8 vols, 1680-1701.
Nalson, J., An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs of State etc., 2 vols,
the Letters and State Papers during the Reign of King James the Sixth contain
useful material concerning the baby Charles,
Abbotsford Club, VI, 1838.
Letters to King James the
Sixth contain early letters of Charles and his
family as well as the Accounts of the Lords High Treasurers of Scotland
published as an Appendix to the Introduction which are useful for Charles's
birth and nursery years.
Statutes of the Realm
Besides the official publication there are several abridged editions:
Firth, C. H. and Rait, R. S., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum 1642-1660
, cover the period when Charles was absent from Westminster, 1911.
Steele, R. R.,
Bibliotheca Lindesiana (a bibliography of royal Proclamations), 1910.
Rymer, T. and Sanderson, R., Foedera , includes many pronouncements made by the
Privy Council during the Personal Rule, 20 vols, 1704-32.
Records of the Privy Council
The Privy Council Registers are officially published in full transcript as
Acts of the Privy Council of England, New Series, 1542-1631 , 46 vols,
The Registers for 1631-1637 are reproduced photographically on micro-opaque
The Registers for 1637-1645 are published as slightly reduced facsimiles in
codex form, 6 vols, 1967-68.
Many news-letters from the State Papers in the Public Record Office have been
transcribed by Thomas Birch and edited by R. F. Williams in 4 vols as The Court
and Times of James I and The Court and Times of Charles I , 1849.
The Letters of John Chamberlain (many of which are in the State Papers and are
included in Birch (above)) were edited in 2 vols by N.
The despatches of the agent of the Grand Duke of Tuscany are full of interest.
They are calendared in Reports of the H.M.
Comm. , 11, i (Skrine MSS).
Harleian Miscellany: or a collection of scarce, curious, and entertaining
tracts . . . found in the late Earl of Oxford's library , ed. W. Oldys, 8 vols,
1744-6; ed. T. Park, 10 vols., 1808-13.
Somers Tracts . . . selected from . . . public as well as private libraries ,
16 vols, 1748-51; ed. W. Scott 13 vols, 1809-15.
Howell, J., Epistolae
, 3 vols, 1645.
Whitelocke, B., Memorials of the English Affairs , 1682 and later.
Harington, J., Nugae
Antiquae , 2 vols, 1769.
Nichols, J. (ed.), The Progresses . . . etc. . . . of King
James the First (compiled from MSS and
pamphlets, 4 vols), 1828.
E—Biographies of Charles
Arnway, J., The Tablet, or Moderation of Charles
I, Martyr , 1649.
Wotton, H., A Panegyrick of King Charles
Anon., The Life and Reign of King Charles
or the Pseudo-Martyr Discovered , 1651.
Gerbier, B.(?), The Non-Such Charles his Character
Lilly, W., The True History of King James
the First and King Charles
the First , 1651.
Weldon, A., The Court and Character of King James, Whereunto is now Added the
Court of King Charles Continued unto the Beginning of these Unhappy Times ,
Peyton, E., The Divine Catastrophe of the House of Stuarts ,
L'Estrange, H., The Reign of Charles
I , 1655.
Heylin, P., Observations upon the History (i.e. of L'Estrange,
L'Estrange, H., The Observator Observed , 1656.
Sanderson, W., A Compleat History of the Life and Reigne of King
Charles From His Cradle to His Grave , 1658.
Van den Bos, L., The Life and Raigne of King Charles , 1658.
Rider, W., new ed. of Arnway (above), 1661.
Perrinchief, R., The Royal Martyr, or the Life and Death of King
Charles I , 1676.
Butler, S., The Plagiary Exposed .
. . against the Memory of King Charles
I , 1691.
Hollingworth, R., The Character of King Charles
Hollingworth, R., A Defence of King Charles
Perrinchief, R., The Life and Death of King Charles I (similar to Perrinchief,
Harris, W., An Historical and Critical Account
of the Life and Writings of Charles I , 1758.
D'Israeli, I., Commentaries on the Life
and Reign of Charles I , 1828-31.
Abbott, Jacob, History of King
Charles the First of England
Guizot, F. P. G., History of Charles
the First and the English Revolution , 1854.
Chancellor, E. Beresford,
The Life of Charles I, 1600-1625 , 1886.
Adams, W. H. D., The White King , 1889.
Seton, W. W.,
The Early Years of Frederick Henry,
Prince of Wales and Charles, Duke of Albany
MacKilliam, A. H., Charles the First , 1917.
Coit, C. W.,
The Royal Martyr , 1924.
Higham, F. M.,
Charles I , 1932.
Belloc, H., Charles the First ,
John, Evan, King
Charles I , 1933.
Brookes, J., A Vindication of Charles
I , 1934.
Pakenham, M. P.,
Charles I , 1936.
Stratford, E. Wingfield,
Charles, King of England (3 vols), 1948-50.
French, A., Charles I and the Puritan Upheaval ,
Wedgwood, C. V.,
The King's Peace, 1637-1641 , 1955.
Wedgwood, C. V.,
The King's War, 1641-1647 , 1958.
Toynbee, M. R.,
Charles the First , 1964.
Hibbert, C., Charles I , 1968.
Bowle, J., Charles I , 1975.
Carlton, C., The Personal King ,
Sharpe, K., The Personal Rule of Charles I, 1992
F—Particular Studies of Charles
and Cromwell , 1946.
Young, G. M.,
Charles I and Cromwell , 1950.
Dobson, J., The Children of Charles I , 1975.
Hibberd, C., Charles I and the Popish Plot ,
G—Particular Episodes in Charles's Life: The Sources Given below Are a Few of the
1—Birth and Childhood
Chancellor (above) is the only one who deals with the early years in any
Earl of Monmouth, Memoirs of the Life of Robert Cary, Baron of Leppington and Earl of Monmouth. Written by himself, and now published from the original manuscript in the custody of John Earl of Corke and Orrery, 1759
Cantrell, Henry, The Royal Martyr, a true
Christian , 1716 (for the baptism of Charles).
Keevil, J. J.,
'The Illness of Charles, Duke of Albany
from 1600-1612', Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences , Vol.
IX, No. 4, October, 1954.
Arbuckle, W. F., 'The Gowrie Conspiracy', Scottish Historical Review , 36, pp.
1 ff and 89 ff, 1957.
The Hardwick State
Papers vol. I are the main repository of the letters from Charles,
James, Buckingham, Bristol
and contain the answers of Bristol
to the charges against him. Also
Wotton, H. The Life and Death of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham
, in Reliquiae Wottonianae (reasons for going).
Chamberlain, J. Letters , Vol. II,
480-81 (for the return from Spain).
Journals of the House of Lords , Vol.
III, 220-33 for Buckingham's
Proposed Spanish Marriage Treaty, and the negotiations ,
Clarendon MSS., Rushworth I, 76 ff; Fray Francisco de Jesus, 'Narrative of the
Spanish Marriage Treaty', ed. S.
Camden Soc. , 1869.
'The Earl of Bristol's
Defence of his Negotiations in Spain',
Misc. VI ,
3—Cadiz and La
Glanville, J. 'The Voyage to Cadiz
in 1625'; Camden Soc, 1883.
Journal of all the Proceedings of the Duke of Buckingham in the Isle of Ree ,
Manley, T., Iter Carolium
, Jan. 1642-1649, 1660.
E., Historical Discourses , 1705.
Maseres, F. (ed.), Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars in England
, 2 vols, 1815.
Parsons, D. (ed.), The Diary of Henry
Slingsby (1638-45) , 1836.
Cary, H. (ed.),
Memorials of the Great Civil War, 1642-52 , 2 vols. 1842.
Symonds, R., Diary of the Marches
of the Royal Army 1644-5 , Camden
Peacock, E. (ed.), Army Lists of Roundheads and Cavaliers . . . 1642 , 1874.
Langmead, T. L.
(ed.), Sir Edward
Lake's account of his Interview
with Charles I , Camden Soc., 1858.
Varley, F. J.
The Siege of Oxford . . . 1642-1646
Young, P., 'King Charles I's Army in 1642', J. Soc. Army Hist. Research , 17,
pp. 102-9, 1938.
Ketton-Cremer, R. W.,
'The King's Journey', in A Norfolk Gallery , 1948.
Burne, A. H.,
The Battlefields of England
Burne, A. H.
and Young, P., The Great Civil War , 1950.
Woolrych, A. H.,
Battles of the Civil War , 1961.
I., 'The Royalist Council of War, 1642-6', B.I.H.R. ,
XXXV, pp. 150-68, 1962.
Young, P., Edgehill, the Campaign and the Battle
Young, P., Marston Moor, the Campaign and the Battle
Smith, G. R.,
Without Touch of Dishonour (Life and death of Slingsby), 1968.
W. Sir John
Berkenhead 1617-1679, a Royalist Career in
Politics and Polemics , 1969.
Toynbee, M. and Young, P., Cropredy
Bridge 1644, the Campaign and the Battle
Young, P. and Emberton, W., The Cavalier Army, its Organization and Everyday
Life , 1974.
Smith, G. R.
and Toynbee, M., Leaders of the Civil Wars 1642-1648 , 1977.
L., 'A King in Search of Soldiers: Charles
I in 1942', Hist. J. , 21, 1978.
Young, P., Civil War England
Hutton, R., The Royalist War Effort, 1642-1646 , 1982.
Herbert, T., Threnodia Carolina , being the 1st
ed. of Herbert's Memoirs of the last two years
of the Reign of . . . King Charles
I (other eds 1702, 1813, infra Stevenson, etc.) 1678.
Peck, F. (ed.), Desiderata Curiosa , 2 vols, 1732-5; (contains much material on
escape to the Scots), 1779.
Birch, T. (ed.), Letters . . . Hammond
. . . relating to King Charles
I while he was confined in Carisbrook , 1764.
Ashburnham, J., Narrative . . . of his Attendance on King Charles
, 2 vols, 1830.
Berkeley, J., Memoirs (Appendix to above), 1830.
Montreuil, J. de, The Diplomatic
Correspondence of 1645-48 , ed. J.
2 vols, Scot. Hist. Soc.
(for Charles's escape to the Scots), 1898/9.
Fea, A., Memoirs of the Martyr King, 1646-9 , 1905.
Stevenson, G. S.
(ed.), Charles I in Captivity from Contemporary
Sources . Contains Herbert's Memoirs ,
Narratives of Col. Edward Cooke,
Major Huntington, Henry
Firebrace, C. W.,
Honest Harry, being the biography of Sir
Knight, 1619-1691 , 1932.
Mackenzie, N., 'Sir
of Tintern, a parliamentary royalist', Bull.I.H.R. , 28, pp. 23-86, 1955/56.
Jones, J., The Royal Prisoner (in the Isle of Wight),
6—Trial and Execution
Nalson, J., A True Copy of the Journal of the High Court of Justice for the
Tryal of King Charles I , 1684.
Herbert, T., Memoir of the Last Years of the
Reign of King Charles I to which is added a Particular Account of the Funeral
of the King , several eds, 1678.
The State Trials , vol. IV, (ed. from contemporary sources by W.
and others) 1809-28.
Halford, H., Essays and Orations , 'An Account of the Opening of the Tomb of King
Charles I at Windsor
in 1813', 1831.
Muddiman, J. C.
(ed.), The Trial of King Charles
the First , 1928.
Galwey, R. Payne,
The Scaffold George of Charles
I , 1908.
Lockyer, R., Trial of Charles I
Wedgwood, C. V.,
The Trial of Charles I , 1964.
The newssheets for end Jan. and beginning Feb., 1649.
1—Ships and the Navy
Heywood, T., A True Description of His
Majestie's Royal Ship [the Sovereign of the Seas], 1637.
Oppenheim, M., A History of the Administration of the Royal
Navy and of Merchant Shipping in Relation to the Navy from 1509 to 1660 , 1896.
Penn, C. D.,
The Navy under the Early Stuarts , 1913.
Pett, P., The Autobiography of Phineas
Pett , ed. W. G.
Davis, R., The
Rise of the English Shipping Industry , 1962.
Smith, S., A True Narration of the Royall Fishings of Great
Britaine and Ireland
Smith, S., The Herring-Busse Trade , 1641.
Elder, J. R.,
The Royal Fishery Companies of the Seventeenth Century , 1912.
3—Sovereignty of the Seas
Selden, J., Mare Clausum (written 1617 or '18, pub. 1635, trans. M.
Borough, J., The Sovereignty of the British
Seas , 1633, pub. 1651.
Gordon, M. D.,
'The Collection of Ship Money in the reign of Charles
I', Trans.R.H.S. , 3rd S.4, pp. 141-62, 1910.
Keir, D. L., 'The Case of Ship-Money', Law Quart. Rev. , 52, pp. 546-74, 1936.
Bard, N. P.,
'The Ship Money Case and William
Fiennes, Viscount Saye and Sele',
Bull.I.H.R. , 50-51, pp. 177-84, 1977.
Swales, R. J. W., 'The Ship Money Levy of 1628', ibid. , pp. 164-76.
5—Patents and Monopolies
Price, W. H.,
The English patents of monopoly , 1906.
Rymer, Privy Council (supra , C.)
H., 'Distraint of Knighthood: the last
phase, 1625-41', History , No. 63, pp. 23-7, 1978.
6—The King's Finances
Dietz, F. C.,
Receipts and Issues of the Exchequer during the Reigns of James
I and Charles I (Smith
College Studies, Northampton,
Dietz, F. C.,
English Public Finance, 1558-1641 , 1932.
Roper, H. Trevor-,
The Plunder of the Arts in the Seventeenth Century (for Mantuan Collection),
Sainsbury, W. N.,
Appendix H (Q.12) for Mantuan Collection.
Van der Doort, A., Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I reproduced with an
Introduction by Oliver Millar
(Walpole Soc. vol. XXXVII), 1960.
Millar, O., The Age of Charles I: Painting in England
1620-1649 , 1972.
Nuttall, W. L. F., 'King Charles's
Pictures and the Commonwealth Sale',
Apollo , Oct. 1965.
Knights, L. C.,
Drama and Society in the Age of Jonson , 1937.
Wedgwood, C. V.,
Seventeenth-Century English Literature , 1950, 1970.
Wedgwood, C. V.,
Poetry and Politics Under the Stuarts , 1960.
Stubbs, J., Reprobates, The Cavaliers of the English Civil War, 2011.
5—Portraits of Charles
Cust, L., 'The Equestrian Portraits of Charles
I', Burlington Magazine , XVIII,
pp. 207 ff. 1910-11.
Mann, J. G., 'The Charles I
Statue at Charing Cross', Country Life , pp. 908-9, May 16, 1947.
Toynbee, M. R.,
'Some Early Portraits of Charles I', Burlington
Magazine , XCI pp. 4-9, 1949.
Esdaile, K. A., 'The Busts and Statues of Charles I', ibid , pp. 4-14, 1949.
Millar, O., Age of Charles I (above).
Strong, R., Charles I on Horseback , 1972.
Mayor, J. E. B. (ed.), Two Lives , 1855.
T. (ed.), Nicholas
Ferrar, his Household and his Friends ,
Blackstone, B. (ed.), The Ferrar Papers , 1938.
Haycock, A. L.,
of Little Gidding , 1938.
Maycock, A. L.,
Chronicles of Little Gidding , 1954.
7—The King's Evil; The Occult, etc.
Browne, J., Service used in touching for the King's Evil ,
Crawford, R., The King's Evil , 1911.
Toynbee, M. R.
'Charles I and the King's Evil' in Folklore vol.
LXI, March 1950.
V., Religion and the Decline of Magic ,
The King and His Church
1—The Church of England and the Church of Rome
Laud, biography (Q.).
Charles's own letters and speeches, etc. (B).
Gamaches, C. de, Memoirs of the Mission in England of the Capuchin Friars . . . 1630-1669 are printed in
vol. II of Birch, Court and Times of Charles I (supra).
Panzani, Con, Rossetti , transcripts of the correspondence are in the P.R.O.
Panzani, G., The Memoirs of Gregorio Panzani, including an account of his
Agencies in England 1634-1636 , ed. J. Berington, 1793.
Meyer, A. O., 'Charles I and Rome', Am.Hist.Rev. , 19, pp. 13-26, 1913.
Albion, G. G., Charles I and the Court of Rome , 1938.
Hill, J.E.C. Economic Problems of the Church , 1956.
Havran, M. J., The Catholics in Caroline England , 1962.
Tyacke, N., 'Puritanism, Arminianism and Counter-Revolution' in Origins of the
English Civil War , ed. C. Russell, 1973.
Hibbard, C. M., 'Early Stuart Catholicism: Revisions and Re-Revisions', J.M.H. ,
vol. 52, No. 1, March 1980.
2—Puritanism and Puritan Protest
Laud's speech against Bastwick, Burton, Prynne in 1637 is in Harleian Misc.
W., Canterburie's doome , 1646.
Thomason, G., The Thomason Tracts, 1640 - 1661. Collection of pamphlets; British Library.
Heath, Sir Robert, 'Speech . . . in the case of . . . Leighton in
the Star Chamber', Camden Soc. Misc. VII, 1875.
'Proceedings against Prynne', Camden Soc. N.S. 18, 1877.
Ball, T. Life of the Renowned Doctor Preston , ed. E. W. Harcourt, 1628.
Newton, A. P., The colonizing Activities of the Early Puritans ,
Kirby, E. W., William Prynne: A Study in Puritanism , 1931.
Haller, W., Tracts on Liberty in the Puritan Revolution , 3 vols, 1934.
Haller, W., The Rise of Puritanism , 1938.
Morgan, I., Prince
Charles's Puritan Chaplain , 1957.
Hill, J. E. C., Puritanism and Revolution , 1958.
Hill, J. E. C. (ed.), Brailsford, The Leveller Movement , 1961.
Gregg, P., Free-born John (a
biography of Lilburne), 1961.
Lamont, W., Marginal Prynne , 1963.
Hill, J. E. C., Society and Puritanism in pre-Revolutionary England , 1964.
Lamont, W., Godly Rule , 1969.
Kupperman, K. O., Providence Island 1630 - 1641, The Other Puritan Colony, 1993
Until recently, theoretical discussion, principles of political obligation,
etc. have attracted more attention than either the day-to-day happenings in
Parliament or the development of Parliament itself. Thus:
Gardiner, S. R., Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution
1628-1660 , 1889.
Figgis, J. N., The Theory of the Divine Right of Kings , 1896.
Tanner, J. R., English Constitutional Conflicts of the Seventeenth
Century, 1603-1689 , 1928.
Gooch, G. P., Political Thought in England from Bacon to Halifax , 1914/15.
Gooch, G. P., English Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century
(2nd ed. edited Laski),
Tanner, J. R., Constitutional Documents of the Reign of James I
1603-1625 , 1930.
Allen, J. W., English Political Thought, 1603-1660 , 2 vols, 1938.
Sabine, G. H., A History of Political Theory , 1937.
Wormuth, F. D., The Royal Prerogative 1603-1649 , 1939.
Judson, M. A., The Crisis of the Constitution , 1949.
Zagorin, P., A History of Political Thought in the English Revolution , 1954.
Kenyon, J. P., The Stuart Constitution , Documents and Commentary, 1966.
J., 'The Idea of Absolute Monarchy in 17th Century England', H.J. , 21, pp. 227-50, 1978.
Journals of the House of Commons
Journals of the House of Lords
These Journals contain some speeches, procedural accounts, attendances, but are
scrappy and incomplete.
The Old Parliamentary History , compiled 1751-62.
The Parliamentary History of England , compiled by William Cobbett 1806-20.
Both these Parliamentary histories need supplementing and should be used with
caution, but they make good use of contemporary pamphlets, etc. to fill in gaps
in the Journals .
Firth, C. H., The House of Lords During the Civil War, 1603-1660 ,
Notestein, W., Relf, F. H. and Simpson, H., Commons Debates, 1621 , 1935.
Ruigh, R. E., The Parliament of 1624 , 1971.
Gardiner, S. R., 'Debates in the House of Lords 1624', 1626, Camden Soc., 1879.
Gardiner, S. R., 'Debates in the House of Commons in 1625', Camden Soc., 1873.
Fuller, M. B., Negotium Posterorum and the Parliament of 1625 , 1919.
Ball, J. N., 'Eliot in 1625', Bull.I.H.R. , 28, pp. 103-27, 1955.
Hulme, H., The leadership of Sir John Eliot in the Parliament of 1626 , 1932.
Johnson, R. C., Keeler, M. F., Cole, M. J. and Bidwell, W. B., The Commons' Debates in 1628 , 1977.
Notestein, W. and Relf, F. H., The Commons' Debates for 1629 , 1921.
Fraser, I. H. C., 'The Agitation in the Commons 2nd March 1629', Bull.I.H.R. , 30, pp. 86-95, 1957.
Ball, J. N., 'Sir John Eliot and Parliament, 1624-1629' in Faction and Parliament
(nfra ), 1978.
C., 'The Divided Leadership of the House of Commons in 1629' in Faction and
Parliament (infra ), 1978.
3—The Long Parliament
May, T., The History of the Parliament of England which Began November 3, 1640 , 1647.
The Journal of Sir Simonds D'Ewes, Nov. 1640-March 1641 , ed. Notestein; Oct. 1641-Jan.
1642 , ed. Coates, 1923.
Verney Papers, Notes of Proceedings in the Long Parliament , ed. J. Bruce, Camden Soc., 1845.
Keeler, M. F., The Long Parliament, 1640-41, a biographical study
of its Members , 1954.
Brunton, D. and Pennington, D. H., Members of the Long Parliament , 1954.
Hexter, H. H., The Reign of King Pym , 1941.
Brett, S. R., 'The Long Parliament', Quart. Rev. , 275, pp.
MacCormack, J. R., Revolutionary Politics in the Long Parliament ,
Relf, F. H., The Petition of Right , 1917.
Foster, E. R., 'The Printing of the Petition of Right', Huntingdon
Liby Quarterly I, pp. 81-3, 1974.
J., The Debates on the Grand Remonstrance , 1860.
Schoolcraft, H. L., The Genesis of the Grand Remonstrance , 1902.
Coates, W. H., 'Some Observations on the Grand Remonstrance' J.M.H.
, 4, pp. 1-17, 1932.
Forester, J., The Arrest of the Five Members by Charles I
5—General Discussion (See Also Essay Collections)
Notestein, W., 'The Winning of the Initiative by the House of Commons', Proc.
Brit. Acad. 11, pp. 125-75, 1924-5.
Willson, D. H. (ed.), The Parliamentary Diary of Robert Bowyer , 1941.
Hinton, R. M. K., 'The Decline of Parliamentary Government under Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts', C.H.J. , 13, pp. 116-32, 1957.
Mitchell, W. M., The Rise of the Revolutionary Party in the English
House of Commons 1603-1629 , 1957.
Johnson, R. C., 'Parliamentary Diaries of the Early Stuart Period', Bull.I.H.R. , 44, pp. 293-300, 1971.
Russell, C., 'Introduction' and 'Parliament and the King's
Finances' in The Origins of the English Civil War (infra) , 1973.
Hirst, D., The Representative of the People? , 1975.
Russell, C., 'Parliamentary History in Perspective:
1602-1629', History , 61, pp. 1-27, 1976.
K., 'Parliamentary History 1603-1629: In or out of Perspective?' in Faction and
Parliament (infra) , 1978.
Russell, C., Parliaments and English Politics 1621-1629 ,
1979. This is the most comprehensive study of early Stuart Parliaments to have
appeared. With the work of Hirst and Sharpe it emphasizes both the new approach to Parliamentary
history and the importance of day-to-day happenings as opposed to the
theoretical approach represented by the works listed under K (above).
Important reviews are:
Underdown, D., Am.Hist.Rev. , 85, Feb. 1980.
Hirst, D., 'Parliament, Law and War in the 1620s' H.J. ,
Woolrych, A., 'Court, Country and City Revisited', History , June 1980.
Hexter, J. H., 'The Not-So-New-Men', New York Review , Dec. 18, 1980.
1—At the Centre
Aylmer, G. E., The King's Servants: the Civil Service of Charles I
1625-1642 , 1961, rev. 1974.
2—In the Localities
The emphasis upon Parliament has been matched by an increasing
number of studies of local affairs, which are of crucial importance to an
understanding of Charles's reign:
Coate, M., Cornwall in the Great Civil War and Interregnum 1642-1660 ,
Wood, A. C., Nottinghamshire in the Civil War , 1937.
Barnes, T. G., Somerset 1625-40 , 1961.
Chalkin, C. W., Seventeenth-Century Kent , 1965.
Everitt, A., The Community of Kent and the Great Rebellion , 1966.
Morrill, J. S., The Revolt of the Provinces , 1976.
C., The Eastern Association in the English Civil War , 1974.
Fletcher, A., A County Community in Peace and War; Sussex 1600-1660 , 1975.
Pearl, V., London and the Outbreak of the Puritan Revolution 1625-42 ,
R., Newcastle-upon-Tyne and the Puritan Revolution , 1967.
Clark, P. and Slack, P., Crisis and Order in English Towns
1500-1700 , 1972.
Donaldson, G., The Making of the Scottish Prayer Book of 1637 , 1954.
C. V., 'Anglo-Scottish Relations, 1603-40', R.H.S. Trans. , 4th S. 32, pp.
Donaldson, G., Scotland: James V-James VII , 1965.
Schwarz, M. L., 'Viscount Saye and Sele, Lord Brooke and aristocratic protest
to the First Bishops' War', Canadian J. Hist. , vii, pp. 17-36, 1972.
Stevenson, D., The Scottish Revolution, 1637-44 , 1973.
L., Politics and Religion during the English Revolution: the Scots and the Long
Parliament 1643-1645 , 1976.
Fissel, M. C., The Bishops' Wars, Charles I's campaigns against Scotland 1638-1640, 1994.
O—Economic and Social Development
State Papers Domestic for instructions to and responses from counties to
Reports of Cases in Star Chamber and High Commission ed. Gardiner, S. R., Camden Soc., 1886.
Rushworth, Vol. II, part 2 , Reports of Star Chamber cases, 1625-8.
Nef, J. U., 'The Progress of Technology and the Growth of Large
Scale Industry in Great
1540-1640', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 5, pp. 3-24, 1934.
Supple, B., Commercial Crisis and Change in England 1600-1642 , 1959.
Barnes, T. G., Somerset 1625-40 (for the Book of Orders and Poor Law Policy),
Allan, D. G. C., 'The Rising in the West, 1628-1631', Econ.Hist.Rev.
, 5, pp. 136-61, 1952.
Harris, L. E., Vermuyden and the Fens ,
Hammersley, G., 'The Crown Woods and their Exploitation in the Sixteenth and
Seventeenth Centuries', Bull.I.H.R. , 30, pp. 136-51, 1957.
Hammersley, G., 'Julius Caesar: Memo. on Crown Forest Land', Bull.I.H.R. , 30, pp. 157-8, 1957.
Kerridge, E., 'The Revolt in Wiltshire against Charles
I', Wilts. Arch. and Natural History Mag. , LVII, pp. 64-75, 1958.
Beresford, M. W., 'Habitation versus Improvement' in Essays in the
Economic and Social History of Tudor and Stuart Times , ed. F. J. Fisher, 1961.
Thirsk, J., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, IV , 1500-1640, 1967.
Kerridge, E., Agrarian Problems, the 16th Century and After , 1969.
Friis, A., Alderman Cockayne's Project and the Cloth Trade , 1927.
Bowden, P. J., The Wool Trade in Tudor
and Stuart England , 1962.
Ramsay, G. D., The Wiltshire Woollen Industry in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth
Centuries , 1943
Ramsay, G. D., English Overseas Trade during the Centuries of Emergence , 1957.
Outhwaite, R. H., Inflation in Tudor and Early Stuart England , 1969.
P—Class and Society
Peacham, H., The Compleat Gentleman , 1622.
Brathwaite, R., The English Gentleman , 1630.
Brathwaite, R., The English Gentlewoman , 1631.
Campbell, M., The English Yeoman under Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts , 1942.
The relation of economic wealth to political stability and
in particular the changing fortunes of the gentry and the aristocracy have,
since Charles's own time, given rise to fruitful discussion. The most important
Harrington, J., Commonwealth
of Oceana , 1656.
Tawney, R. H.,
'Harrington's Interpretation of his Age', Proceedings of the British
Academy , 1941.
Tawney, R. H.,
'The Rise of the Gentry 1558-1640', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 11, 1941.
Stone, L., 'The Anatomy of the Elizabethan Aristocracy', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 13, 1948.
Roper, H. R.
Trevor-, 'The Elizabethan Aristocracy: An
Anatomy Anatomized', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 2nd. S. 3, 1951.
Stone, L., 'The Elizabethan Aristocracy, a restatement', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 2nd
S. 4, 1952.
Roper, H. R.
Trevor-, 'The Gentry 1540-1640',
Econ.Hist.Rev. Supplement , 1, 1953.
Tawney, R. H.,
'The Rise of the Gentry, a Postscript', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 2nd. S. 7, 1954.
P., 'The Counting of Manors', Econ.Hist.Rev.
, 2nd S. 8, 1956.
Zagorin, P., 'The Social Interpretation of the English Revolution',
J.Econ.Hist. , 19, 1959.
Hexter, J. H.,
'Storm Over the Gentry', in Re-appraisals in History , 1961.
Simpson, A., The Wealth of the Gentry 1540-1660 , 1961.
Stone, L., The Crisis of the Aristocracy 1558-1641 , 1965.
Stone, L., Social Change and Revolution in England
1540-1640 , 1965.
Coleman, D. C., 'The Gentry Controversy and the Aristocracy in
Crisis', History , 51, 1966.
Zagorin, P., The Court and the Country , 1969.
Christianson, P., 'The Causes of the English Revolution: A Revaluation', J. of
British Studies , 15, 1976.
Journal of Modern History , 49, No. 4, a special issue devoted to the English
Revolution, Dec. 1977.
Commentaries on the above in ibid. , March 1978.
Pocock, J. G. A. (ed.), The Political Works of James
Harrington , 1977.
For information on Lotteries, see
Ashton, J., A History of English Lotteries , 1893.
Ewen, C. L.,
Lotteries and Sweepstakes , 1932.
Q—Biographies of People Close to Charles
1a—King James I
Wilson, A., The History of Great Britain, being the Life and Reign of King
James the First , 1653.
Osborne, F., Some Traditionall
Memoyres on the Raigne of King
James the First , 1658
Harris, W., Historical and Critical Account of
the Life and Writings of James I , 1753.
Ashton, R. (ed.), James I by
his Contemporaries , 1969.
Willson, D. H., King James VI
and I , 1973.
Smith, A. G. R. (ed.), The Reign of James VI and
I , 1973.
Bingham, C., James
VI of Scotland
Bingham, C., James I of England
The most important of James's own works are:
Daemonologie , 1597.
The Trew Law
of Free Monarchies , 1603.
A Counterblast of Tobacco , 1604.
A Meditation upon the Lord's Prayer , 1619.
A Meditation upon verses of St. Matthew
His Collected Works were published by Bishop Montague
in 1616; also ed. C. H.
McIlwain in 1918.
b—The Death of James
See Harris (above) and
Eglisham, G., The Forerunner of Revenge , 1642.
Keynes, G., The Life of William
Harvey , 1966, pp. 143-8.
Strickland, A., Lives of the Queens
of England ,
Green, M. A. E., The Letters of Queen Henrietta-Maria
Dauncy, J., Henrietta-Maria , 1660.
Strickland, A., Lives of the Queens of England
Taylor, I. A., Henrietta-Maria
, 2 vols, 1905.
Haynes, H., Henrietta-Maria ,
Oman, C., Henrietta-Maria
Toynbee, M. R.,
'The Wedding Journey of King Charles
I', Archaeologia Cantiania , vol. LXIX, 1955.
Bone, Quentin, Queen of the Cavaliers , 1973.
Henrietta-Maria , 1976.
Smuts, R. M.,
'The Puritan followers of Henrietta
Maria in the 1630s', E.H.R. , 93, pp. 26-45,
Maxwell, J., The Life and Death of Prince
Henry , 1612.
Cornwallis, C., A Briefe Life of Henry,
Prince of Wales written 1626, pub. 1641.
Cornwallis, C., An Account of the Baptism, Life, Death and Funeral of the most
Incomparable Prince Frederick Henry, Prince of Wales , 1751.
Birch, T., The Life of Henry Prince
of Wales ,
Prince Henry and English
Literature , 1946.
Strong, R. Henry Prince of Wales and England's lost Renaissance, 1986
Baker, L. M.,
Letters of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia
W. (ed. Tout and Rait), Elizabeth,
Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia
Green, M. A. E. (revised S. C.
Lomas), Elizabeth Electress Palatine and
Queen of Bohemia , 1909.
Buchan, A., A Stuart
Portrait , 1934.
Oman, C. M.
A., Elizabeth of Bohemia , 1938, revised
Williams, J., Elizabeth, the
Winter Queen , 1977.
Duke of Buckingham
Wotton, H., Reliquiae Wottonianae , 1651.
Fairholt, F. W.
(ed.), Poems and Songs relating to . . . Buckingham and his
Assassination (Percy Society), 1850.
Gardiner, S. R.,
'Documents Illustrating the Impeachment of Buckingham in
1626', Camden Soc., 1889.
Thomson, K., Life and Times of George
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham
Gibbs, P., The Romance of George
Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
Gibb, M. A.,
Buckingham, 1592-1628 , 1936.
Cammell, C. R.,
Buckingham , 1939.
Williamson, H. R.,
First Duke of Buckingham , 1940.
Erlanger, P., trans. Smith-Gordon, L., Life of Buckingham
Lockyer, R., The life and political career of George
Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham , 1981.
Earl of Strafford
Knowler, W. (ed.), The Earl of Strafford's Letters and Despatches , 2 vols,
P., 'The Fortune of Thomas
of Strafford', Econ.Hist.Rev. , Dec. 1958.
Wedgwood, C. V.,
First Earl of Strafford, a
Revaluation , 1961.
P., (ed.), The Wentworth
Papers , Camden Soc., 1973.
8—William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury
Scott, W. and Bliss, J., The Works of William Laud , 7 vols, 1847-60.
Roper, H. R.
Trevor-, Archbishop Laud,
1573-1645 , 1940 (rev. ed. 1962).
Bourne, E. C. E., The Anglicanism of William
Laud , 1947.
Alexander, M. Van Cleave, Charles
I's Lord Treasurer , 1976.
Prince Rupert's Diary : notes preserved in
the Wiltshire Record Office at Trowbridge.
Warburton, B. E. G., Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers , 3 vols, 1849.
Scott, E., Rupert,
Prince Palatine , 1899.
Thomson, G. M.,
Warrior Prince, Prince Rupert of
the Rhine , 1899, 1976.
Cleugh, J., Prince Rupert , 1934.
Wilkinson, C. A., Prince Rupert
the Cavalier , 1934.
Edinger, G. A.,
Rupert of the Rhine
Fergusson, B. E.,
Rupert of the Rhine
Knight, F. E.,
Rupert, Prince of Cavaliers , 1967.
Ashley, M., Rupert
of the Rhine , 1976.
Morrah, P., Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Townshend, D., The Life and Letters of Mr.
Huxley, G., Endymion Porter:
the Life of a Courtier, 1587-1640 , 1959.
Sainsbury, W. N., Original Unpublished Papers
Illustrative of the Life of Sir Peter
Magurn, R. S.,
The Letters of Peter Paul
Rubens , 1955.
13—Sir Benjamin Rudyerd
Manning, J. A.
(ed.), The Memoirs of Benjamin Rudyerd,
containing his Speeches and Poems , 1841.
Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England
P., The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell , 1957.
Hill, J. E.
C. Oliver Cromwell
Fraser, A., Cromwell, Our Chief of Men , 1975.
15—Sir John Eliot
Forster, J., Sir
John Eliot: a
Biography , 2 vols, 1864.
Hulme, H., The Life of Sir John
Eliot, 1592-1632: a Struggle for
Parliamentary Freedom , 1957.
G., Memorials of John Hampden, his Party and
his Times , 2 vols, 1831.
Williamson, H. R.,
Adair, J., John Hampden
the Patriot , 1976.
Pym , 1912.
Pym: the Statesman of the Puritan Revolution
Hexter, J. H.,
The Reign of King Pym , 1941,
Glow, L., 'Pym and Parliament', J.M.H. , 36, 1964, pp. 373-97.
de Acuna, Count of Gondomar
Mattingly, G., 'A Game of Chess', Renaissance Diplomacy , 1955.
H., 'Gondomar: Ambassador
to James I', H.J.
, VII, 1964.
19—The Earl of Essex
Snow, V. F., Essex the Rebel, the Life of Robert Devereux, the
third Earl of Essex 1591-1646 , 1970.
Courtier, The Life of Lord Cottington
Keynes, G., The Life of William
Harvey , 1966.
R—Essay Collections and Discussions on the Causes of the Civil Wars
Hill, J. E. C. English Revolution, 1640 , 3rd. ed. 1955.
Aiken, W. A.
and Henning, B. D.
(eds), Conflict in Stuart England
Fisher, F. J.
(ed.), Essays in the Economic and Social History of Tudor and Stuart
England , 1961.
H. (ed.), From the Renaissance to the
Counter-Reformation , 1966.
Taylor, P. A. M., The Origins of the English
Civil War , 1966.
Innes, E. W.
(ed.), The English Revolution 1600-1660 , 1968.
Parry, R. H.
(ed.), The English Civil War and After , 1970.
Reinmuth, H. S.
(ed.), Early Stuart Studies , 1970.
Russell, C. (ed.), The Origins of the English
Civil War , 1973.
Stone, L., The Causes of the English Revolution, 1529-1642 , 1973.
Manning, B. (ed.), Politics, Religion and the English Civil War , 1973.
R., Studies in Tudor and Stuart
Politics and Government (papers and
reviews), 2 vols, 1974.
C., The Debate on the English Revolution ,
Pennington, D. and Thomas, K., Puritans and
Revolutionaries: Essays in Seventeenth Century History Presented to Christopher
Hill , 1978.
Clark, P., Smith, A. G. R. and Tyacke, N., The English
Commonwealth 1547-1640: Essays in
Politics and Society Presented to Joel
Hurstfield , 1979.
Morrill, J. (ed.) Reactions to the English Civil War 1642-1649 , 1982.
Sharpe, K. (ed.), Faction and Parliament , 1978.
Finally, the monumental histories of the period, which are indispensable:
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in
England , several eds, 3 vols, 1702-4; 6 vols, 1888.
Gardiner, S. R.,
History of England from the Accession of James I to the Outbreak of the Civil
War 1603-42 , 10 vols, 1883-4.
Gardiner, S. R.,
History of the Great Civil War, 1642-9 , 4 vols, 1893.
D'Ewes, S., The Autobiography [to 1636] and Correspondence [to
1649] , 2 vols, 1845.
Verney Family, Memoirs of the Verney Family from the letters . . . at Claydon
House , 2 vols, 1925.
Wedgwood, C. V.,
The Thirty Years War , 1938.
Firth, C. H.,
Essays Historical and Literary , 1938.
Wormald, B., Clarendon, Politics, History and Religion
1640-1660 , 1951.
Ashley, M. England in the Seventeenth Century ,
Aylmer, G., The Struggle for the
Constitution 1603-1689 , 1963.
Roots, I., The Great Rebellion, 1642-1660 , 1966.
Pennington, D. H., Seventeenth-Century Europe , 1970.
P., 'The Fall of the Stuart
Monarchy' in The New Cambridge
Modern History , Vol. IV, 1971.
Hill, J. E. C., Change and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century England
Manning, B., The English People and the English Revolution 1640-49 , 1976.
Ashton, R., The English Civil War, Conservatism and Revolution
1603-1649 , 1978.
White, S. D.,
Coke and the Grievances of the Commonwealth
Ashton, R., The City and the Court , 1979.
Woods, T. P. S., Prelude to Civil War, 1642: Mr Justice Malet
and the Kentish Petition , 1980.
Fletcher, A., The Outbreak of the English Civil War , 1981.